Software Quality Assurance - Defects Reporting
When a programmer makes an error (mistake), which results in a defect in the software source code.
If this defect is executed, system will produce wrong results, causing a failure. A defect can be called fault or bug.
When a QA (Quality Assurance Team) person tests such a scenario, they will start reporting those defects into a defect report system. Many companies do have their own defects reporting system. It usually a web based application where you can select the software product type and assign the priority to the defect.
When the defect is reported, then the system will generate an email and send it to the corresponding development manager. Now some one from development team will look into this issue and make code changes to fix the issue. When the defect is marked as fixed, again, the QA person verifies that it is fixed or not and finally closes the defects.
Thus finding defects in the software development cycle is much cheaper compared to going through QA cycle.
Some software defects must be fixed before releasing it to the clients. However some minor issues can persist when they release the product and they will mark it as known issues.